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He writes with real sympathy of the work of SOE's women agents All these stories exhibit quiet heroism and a readiness to take on ghastly risks; many show the catastrophic suddenness with which agents plunge into danger - MRD Foot, The Times. It is a book to dip in and out of and relish. More than that, it captures a manic truth about terror.

Mr Binney covers their activities on the ground with authority and conviction; and describes with a sure touch the complex atmosphere of jealousies, political jockeying and incipient treachery As Binney observes in this fascinating and valuable account, these girls were no Charlotte Grays, ducking out of service to pursue calls of the heart. They were girls who did the business.

This remarkable story. Reading [this] no one would ever doubt the courage of the men and women of Special Operation Executive - Artemis Cooper, Daily Telegraph. Marcus Binney went to Cambridge, and has lectured extensively to historical societies in New York, Boston, Rhode Island, and Virginia on architectural preservation and history. Evelyn Waugh: A Life Revisited. The Hairy Dieters: Fast Food. This tendency can be evidenced in the major transition of post-feminist discourses on Chinese women in late imperial period, from the stereotype of Chinese women as victims of patriarchal society to the anti-stereotype of Chinese women as individuals with agency and subjectivity.

Focusing on women studies by Dorothy Ko, Susan Mann and Grace Fong, this paper aims to showcase both the productive force derived from stereotype and the new danger involved in the anti-stereotype agenda, in which the anti-stereotype may become another kind of stereotype.


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Stereotype is a crucial term and research subject in image studies or imagology , an important branch of comparative literature, flourishing mainly in the hands of French school. Although its definition varies, most scholars agree that it is a condensed representation and collective understanding of people from another country or another cultural territory, and it is stagnant and illusory generalization.

Recognizing its stagnant and illusory characters, the imagologists justify their scholarly analysis on this subject by claiming that it is not the degree of truth that matters, what really interests them and is worth exploration in the stereotype is what kind of collective belief people have vested in it at that particular moment even that belief is subjective and may not be able to reflect the whole spectrum of the original image , and what kind of historical misconception that belief has engendered.

The awareness of the historical misconception urges scholars to rectify what has been distorted in this collective, romantic imagination of others, as ample evidence shows that the culturally biased stereotype inevitably leads to culturally biased treatment of people in real life. In the anti-stereotype imperative, by refusing to follow the old rut and exploring those previously overlooked details, many scholars aim to yield some innovative conclusions that are against the old commonplace.

In case of Chinese women, much of the anti-stereotype reaction is congregated in the studies of late imperial China or Ming-Qing China, where the stereotype of victimized Chinese women was immensely challenged. To a great extent, the significant influence of their studies on Chinese women of the late imperial period can be mainly attributed to their shared interest and strong intension to challenge the old stereotypes imposed onto women of this period. Despite that it is still debatable whether the tendency of non-victimization constitutes the mainstream outcome of current studies on Chinese women, the influence of their research suffices to qualifies it as a phenomenon worth notice.

In her book Teachers of the Inner Chambers , Dorothy Ko gives a brief introduction of the trajectory of victimization. This lackluster image of Chinese women was continued into the May Fourth-New Culture period —27 when the backwardness and dependency of Chinese Women became the symbol of the Chinese nation itself.

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Associated with passionate and powerful nationalist sentiments, the victimized feudal woman began to gain currency in literature of this period and was consequently treated as unassailable historical truth. With the label of Third World women, the cultural, social, racial differences within the category of women have been brutally erased; compared to western women, all the third world women are oppressed and need to be liberated from patriarchal chains. The first representation of Chinese women as victims may be attributed to the foreign missionaries in late 19th century and early 20th century, whose works set the tone for the later narrative on Chinese women up until s.

When the girl baby first opens her quaint little eyes in a Chinese home—be it a hut or palace—she is greeted with a frown. No one in the household is made happy by her advent. She is, like her Redeemer, despised and rejected of men. Her swaddling clothes may become her burial clothes, for infanticide is a common practice in China. The position that women occupies in China is far below that allotted to her in Christian lands, but it is above her position in India and many other heathen countries.

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In whatever grade of society the woman is found she is held in subjection to the will of her husband. In the homes of the well-to-do and rich she is completely secluded from society, and among the lower classes this is true to a limited extent. Since then, Chinese women were repeatedly portrayed as victims, the custom of footbinding and widow chastity became frequently mentioned hallmarks of their miserable condition as a Chinese woman.

Such a stereotyped narrative was well continued into s, however it was also in this decade that this stereotype began to be challenged. In this section, I aim to show how the stereotype of victimized Chinese women was immensely challenged in the studies of Dorothy Ko, Susan Mann and Grace Fong.

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The bound-feet women may have their own perceptions of what is footbinding and what is that for, through binding their feet, they may manage to redeploy this act into meaningful sacrifice that is in favor of their own benefits. Her intension to challenge the stereotype was more apparent in her earlier and more influential book Teachers of the Inner Chambers in which her overall arguments were based on and shaped by an anti-stereotype mission.


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Stepping out was not the only sign of the permeable domestic boundaries, in 18th century, the inward turn of men from public area to family also blurred the spatial distinction. The domestic boundaries were also violated in the sense that elite women were able to establish cultural and emotional bonds with other women and men outside their family in various occasions, one major way is to establish literary societies, official and unofficial.

Dorothy Ko examined three types of literary societies that were most popular in the 18th century China: domestic, social, and public communities. Womanly speech, once only referred to spoken words, has been extended to the written words, with the emergence of women writers; womanly deportment, which used to highlight the inner beauty of women, began to encompass the physical beauty as more and more women were keen to cultivate their looks; womanly virtue was downplayed, rather than the primary mark of an ideal woman, it has been juxtaposed with other two equally important measurements: beauty and talent; at last, womanly work was successfully transformed by creative women from necessity to art.

While emphasizing the agency and subjectivity of women, Ko also noticed the limitation. They stress the low status of women in traditional Chinese society, and they emphasize the marginalization women experienced in the patriarchal, patrilocal, and patrilineal kinship system. At worst, women appear as victims; at best, they become strategists forced to achieve their ends by manipulating men, especially their sons. As historical actors, they are portrayed as agents of a larger process, their individual identity forever obscured. As a counteraction against these stereotypes, in this article, Susan Mann intended to explore and emphasize the female consciousness, female voice and female perspectives that have been endowed with new features and meanings along with the great historical changes taking place in late eighteenth century.

On careful reading, then, the Li chi could be interpreted to emphasize distinctions and difference more than hierarchy, dominance, or submission.

A proper marriage was arranged and celebrated to underscore gender differences and to emphasize the complementary and separate responsibilities of man and woman in the conjugal relationship. Like all primary relationships, marriage required deference and submission wives are to husbands as sons are to fathers and subjects to rulers.

Thus the Li chi revealed how a wife mediates the critical filial bond tying father to son. She was the pivot around which loyal and compliant subjects were socialized LC b. Worse, it has forced an orientalist view of gender relations on studies of Chinese history for which western scholarship is largely to blame. Unlike Dorothy Ko, Susan Mann does not confine her research subject to the elite women. She is also interested in reexamining the everyday life of ordinary women. Compared with men in High Qing, women enjoyed a more fluid social mobility.

Although women may be sold into slavery, lowborn women could shed their pariah status and move upward mainly by marrying a commoner as his concubine, a path which is closed to men, as men usually either marry a woman of the same status or lower status. In high Qing times, women became more productive members in the household as the commercialization of Chinese economy deepened. Therefore, women became more valuable and respectable for their labor and the income they guaranteed.

Besides, the promising financial gains also reduced the incidence of female infanticide in poor families.

The Women Who Lived for Danger by Marcus Binney - guirosperpnotli.gq

Being senior was a privilege for women in high Qing times. As a woman grew old after 50 sui , she was considerably less labored by housework, and most of her job fell onto the daughter s -in-law, thus she was free to pursue her own spiritual quest e. Buddhist religious practice. So far we have seen how an acute awareness of the danger of stereotype helps to transform the stereotype, a previous negative and reductive term, into a positive and productive force in Chinese studies.

However, while anti-stereotype plays a key role in inviting inspiring new findings in Chinese studies, it meanwhile invites new dangers. It has been noticed that the agency-seeking project has been taken too far. Some western scholars have noticed the new danger even in the relatively less radical arguments of Dorothy Ko. It is very likely, she argued, the main market of this book would be male shoe fetishists, and it would encourage interest in this form of cruelty towards women.

Without exception, all these three women committed suicide to preserve their chastity and reputation, and their poems served to preserve their individual life experience and explain what had motivated them to commit suicide. Other Editions 5. Friend Reviews. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up.

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I cant wait to read this book!!! May I list some relevant titles here? And I concur Regina Lindsey! Lists with This Book. Community Reviews. Showing Average rating 3.