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An 'oracle' is an abstract device able to solve mathematical problems too difficult for the universal Turing machine. In the summer of Turing returned to his Fellowship at King's. Building on earlier work by Polish cryptanalysts, Turing contributed crucially to the design of electro-mechanical machines 'bombes' used to decipher Enigma, the code by means of which the German armed forces sought to protect their radio communications. Turing's work on the version of Enigma used by the German navy was vital to the battle for supremacy in the North Atlantic.

He also contributed to the attack on the cyphers known as 'Fish'.

The Essential Turing

Based on binary teleprinter code, Fish was used during the latter part of the war in preference to morse-based Enigma for the encryption of high-level signals, for example messages from Hitler and other members of the German High Command. Turing received the Order of the British Empire for the part he played. In , the war over, Turing was recruited to the National Physical Laboratory NPL in London, his brief to design and develop an electronic computer - a concrete form of the universal Turing machine.

The Essential Turing Seminal Writings in Computing, Logic, Philosophy, Artificial Intelligence, and

Turing's report setting out his design for the Automatic Computing Engine ACE was the first relatively complete specification of an electronic stored-program general-purpose digital computer. Delays beyond Turing's control resulted in NPL's losing the race to build the world's first working electronic stored-program digital computer - an honour that went to the Royal Society Computing Machine Laboratory at Manchester University, in June Turing was a founding father of modern cognitive science and a leading early exponent of the hypothesis that the human brain is in large part a digital computing machine, theorising that the cortex at birth is an 'unorganised machine' which through 'training' becomes organised 'into a universal machine or something like it'.

He also pioneered Artificial Intelligence.


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Turing spent the rest of his short career at Manchester University, being appointed to a specially created Readership in the Theory of Computing in May On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidensproblem ; 2. On Computable Numbers: Corrections and Critiques ; 3. Systems of Logic Based on Ordinals ; 4.

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Letters on Logic to Max Newman c. History of Hut 8 to December ; 6.


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Bombe and Spider ; 7. Letter to Winston Churchill ; 8. Lecture on the Automatic Computing Machine ; Intelligent Machinery ; Computing Machinery and Intelligence ; Intelligent Machinery, A Heretical Theory c.

Can Digital Computers Think? The Chemical Basis of Morphogenesis ; Chess ; Solvable and Unsolvable Problems show more.

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Review Text The editor not only presents the Turing seminal papers and ingenious contributions to fields he was far ahead his time, he also gives easy access for non-specialists by his comprehensive introductions and comments. Review quote The editor not only presents the Turing seminal papers and ingenious contributions to fields he was far ahead his time, he also gives easy access for non-specialists by his comprehensive introductions and comments. Jack Copeland Published in in Oxford by Clarendon press. Reference details. Open print view. Rozier 44 vleugel Loveling Gent.

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