This book disseminates and discusses relevant best case examples and research practices that show how nanomaterial research and related engineering concepts may provide answers and viable solutions to a variety of socioeconomic issues and concerns. The first section is dedicated to the development of new materials and their characterization. The second section addresses modeling and scale transition from and to nanoscale processes, and the third section presents applications in the environmental and energy sectors.
To address these competing issues, new materials will be needed with the appropriate properties. Given the large spectrum of applications separations, catalysis, etc.
- Not this.
- Randall Q. Snurr | Institute for Sustainability and Energy at Northwestern (ISEN).
- The Irda: Dragonlance Lost Histories, Vol. 2 (The Lost Histories)!
Thus, a book dedicated to both these material needs as well as the various applications is very timely. Richard D. We provide complimentary e-inspection copies of primary textbooks to instructors considering our books for course adoption. Most VitalSource eBooks are available in a reflowable EPUB format which allows you to resize text to suit you and enables other accessibility features.
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Summary This book disseminates and discusses relevant best case examples and research practices that show how nanomaterial research and related engineering concepts may provide answers and viable solutions to a variety of socioeconomic issues and concerns. Reviews "This book addresses an important factor for the future of both energy production and environmental protection.
Pralong, V. Gopal, V. Caignaert, V. Duffort, and B. Resume : Cathodes are typically the bottleneck for further increasing energy capacity of rechargeable batteries, wherein metal redox reactions of the cathodes have long been the state of the art of energy storage devices for e.
However, certain Li rich transition metal oxides used as cathodes, e. Recently, there has been evidence that the extra capacity is due to reversible oxygen redox reactions. Utilizing such anionic redox reactions could be a path for increasing energy capacity in future technology if they can be stabilized alongside the cathodic redox processes. Resonant inelastic x-ray scattering RIXS is a powerful technique to gain a better understanding of underlying chemical processes at an atomic level, especially in such multi-atomic compounds. RIXS allows to map the presence and extent of redox reactions at each atomic species and can disentangle the contributions of the anionic from the cathodic reactions.
In this presentation, I will show and discuss recent results from RIXS experiments on a number of promising battery cathodes. Resume : Palladium-copper PdCu alloys have two representative crystal structures; one is body-centered cubic bcc , the other is face-centered cubic fcc even though both Pd and Cu originally have fcc crystal. The fcc PdCu alloys have disordered structure within which Pd and Cu have solid-solution in fcc lattice, whereas the bcc PdCu alloys have ordered structure which consists of alternative layers with either Pd or Cu atoms. In particular, bcc PdCu alloys have shown superior performance to fcc PdCu alloys since the unique ordered structure of bcc has isolated Pd on the surface.
Most of bcc PdCu alloys have been synthesized for structural transformation by annealing or seed-growth method of fcc PdCu alloys with inevitable grain growth, uneven surface structure and particle size distribution. Despite these limitations, the Pd on the bcc surface which is provided charge flow from Cu serves as an active site for catalytic reaction, which is highly favorable for lithium-oxygen battery. However, the same size of fcc and bcc PdCu alloys is quite difficult to be obtained since the crystallites larger than 20 nm favor the ordered bcc structure with lower symmetry.
Thus, bcc PdCu alloys in nanoscale have been rarely reported, consequently fcc and bcc PdCu nanoparticles NPs have never been properly compared until now. In this study, we successfully synthesize fcc and bcc PdCu alloys in nanoscale through precisely adjusting the driving force for reducing organometallic complex.
The bcc PdCu NPs with higher surface energy govern the growth thermodynamics of discharge product and greatly improved battery performance based on density functional theory calculation and experimental proof. This study provides critical descriptor on material design in the perspective of modulating surface structure via crystal structure to tune its intrinsic properties. Resume : Lithium-ion batteries represent the most advanced electrochemical energy storage technology.
Still, there is an ever increasing need for batteries with significantly higher energy densities and faster charging rates. The high capacities are however reached only at low charging rates with a rapid decay at faster rates, which is attributed to the significant structural changes as well as resistances arising from the low conductivity of tin oxide.
We present a novel strategy to obtain SnO2 based electrodes with a very high gravimetric capacity and drastically improved rate performance and cycling stability. Using a microwave assisted synthesis, we grow antimony-doped tin oxide ATO nanoparticles with sizes below 3 nm on the surface of graphene, providing a composite anode material with a high electric conductivity and high structural stability. The composites feature gravimetric capacity of mAh g-1 at 1C and still a high capacity of mAh g-1 at 60C, which is the highest ever reported capacity at such a high C-rate.
The extremely high rate capability, simple one-step fabrication and low cost of the nanocomposites render them attractive ultrafast high capacity anodes for lithium ion batteries. Zoller, K. Peters, P. Zehetmaier, P. Zeller, M.
Bein, Z. Sofer, D.
Nanoporous Materials for Energy and the Environment | Taylor & Francis Group
Fattakhova Rohlfing, Adv. Mater , DOI: Resume : The presentation gives an overview of ab-initio calculations addressing the thermoelectric performance of MXenes. The lattice thermal conductivity is demonstrated to grow along the series Ti-Zr-Hf in the temperature range K, resulting in the highest figure of merit in the case of Ti2CO2.
Flat conduction bands promote the thermopower in the case of n-doping.
Functionalization effects are studied for Sc2C, which is semiconducting for various functional groups, including O, F, and OH. The lowest lattice thermal conductivity is found for OH functionalization. Despite a relatively low thermopower, Sc2C OH 2 therefore and due to a high electrical conductivity can be interesting for intermediate-temperature thermoelectric applications.
We also discuss results on heterostructures built of MXenes and transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers. Low frequency optical phonons are found to occur as a consequence of the van der Waals bonding.
They contribute significantly to the thermal transport and compensate for reduced contributions of the acoustic phonons strong scattering in heterostructures , such that the thermal conductivities become similar to those of the constituent MXenes. Resume : Lithium rechargeable batteries with improved energy density, low cost, and enhanced safety are necessary to electrify the long-range, high-utilization transportation sectors.
Even though major efforts are directed towards the search for new electrode materials, the electrolyte remains a crucial component. In our group, we have developed several polymer electrolytes based on different strategies: i ionic liquid IL doped polymer membranes to improve electrochemical stability ii polyelectrolytes to enhance ionic conductivity iii gel polymer electrolytes for flexible batteries.
Semi-crystalline polymers such as Poly vinyl alcohol PVA , Poly acrylic acid PAA which have excellent chemical resistance, environmentally benign nature, and good film-formation properties have been used as polymer matrix. Ionic liquids are well known for their non-flammability, low vapour pressure and electrochemical stability against Li metal. We have studied polymer electrolytes doped with ILs based on pyrrolidinium and pipieridinium cations and bis trifluoromethanesulfonyl imide TFSI anions. The thermal, chemical, mechanical and structural properties of the prepared polymer electrolytes have been studied by different characterization techniques.
Li metal. Galvanostatic charge-discharge studies of these polymer electrolytes were performed by assembling coin type cells with these membranes as the electrolyte, conventional cathodes such as LiCoO2 and LiFePO4, and Li metal as the anode. The open circuit potential of the sample was measured over a temperature range from CC. After repeating experiment only Nernst potential of oxygen was observed.
Experiment repetition resulted in sample degradation on anode side. The degraded sample exhibited lower electrolyte conductivity with higher activation energy of about 0. The total conductivity of the sample including interphases showed an Arrhenius behavior with activation energy of 1.trinhisomo.ml
Materials for energy application
Dense ceramics pellets sintered by Spark Plasma Sintering method were produced and conductivity measurements was performed by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy. Anuar, Ceram. Xu, Chem. Cheng, J. In this method, the direct contact between combustion air and fuel is avoided, while oxygen is transported to the fuel by a solid Oxygen Carrier OC.
Therefore, it enables spectacular reduction of CO2 and NOX greenhouse gases emissions from fossil fuel combustion.
This is important since the raw material is highly available and the production cost of the OC is relatively low. They include reactivity study, phase determination and morphology study. The redox cycling reactions were performed at a Thermo-Gravimetric Analyser TGA to determine reactivity and stability. For the redox reactions, methane-air mixtures were applied, with different CH4.