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Linux Format magazine, issue , article titled "Nginx: Set up a web server". Linux Format magazine, issue , article titled "Python: Code a system tool". Linux Format magazine, issue , article titled "psutil: A guide for sysadmins". Linux Format magazine, issue , article titled "Drupal 8: Create a website". Linux Format magazine, issue , article titled "D3. Linux Format magazine, issue , article titled "Processing text with Python".

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Linux Format magazine, issue , article titled "Graphviz: Make beautiful graphs". Linux Format magazine, issue , article titled "Fractals: Plot beautiful images". Linux Format magazine, issue , article titled "Wireshark: Analyse traffic". Linux Format magazine, issue , article titled "R: Statistical learning part 2". Linux Format magazine, issue , article titled "R: Statistical learning primer".

Linux For You magazine, November , article titled "Getting started with tcpdump". Macland, September , article titled "Google: Search, search and you will find it! Macland, September , article titled "An introduction to Regular Expressions". Macland, May , article titled " fink ". Technical reviewer for the "The Linux Operating System" book. Giourdas publications. Computer For Everyone magazine, February , article titled "Solaris 8". The defining component of Linux is the Linux kernel , an operating system kernel first released 5 October by Linus Torvalds.

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Linux was originally developed as a free operating system for Intel x86 -based personal computers. It has since been ported to more computer hardware platforms than any other operating system. The development of Linux is one of the most prominent examples of free and open source software collaboration: the underlying source code may be used, modified, and distributed—commercially or non-commercially—by anyone under licenses such as the GNU General Public License. Typically Linux is packaged in a format known as a Linux distribution for desktop and server use.

Linux distributions include the Linux kernel, supporting utilities and libraries and usually a large amount of application software to fulfill the distribution's intended use. Some such distributions may include a less resource intensive desktop such as LXDE or Xfce for use on older or less powerful computers. Because Linux is freely redistributable, anyone may create a distribution for any intended use.

It was first released in and was initially entirely written in assembly language , a common practice at the time. The availability of an operating system written in a high-level language allowed easier portability to different computer platforms. Free of the legal glitch requiring free licensing, Bell Labs began selling Unix as a proprietary product. The GNU Project , started in by Richard Stallman , had the goal of creating a "complete Unix-compatible software system" composed entirely of free software. Work began in By the early s, many of the programs required in an operating system such as libraries, compilers , text editors , a Unix shell , and a windowing system were completed, although low-level elements such as device drivers , daemons , and the kernel were stalled and incomplete.

Linus Torvalds has said that if BSD had been available at the time, he probably would not have created Linux. In while attending the University of Helsinki , Torvalds became curious about operating systems [ 28 ] and frustrated by the licensing of MINIX, which limited it to educational use only. He began to work on his own operating system which eventually became the Linux kernel. Later Linux matured and further Linux development took place on Linux systems. Code licensed under the GNU GPL can be reused in other projects as long as they also are released under the same or a compatible license.

Today, Linux systems are used in every domain, from embedded systems to supercomputers , [ 16 ] [ 31 ] and have secured a place in server installations often using the popular LAMP application stack.

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The federal government of Brazil is well known for its support for Linux. Torvalds continues to direct the development of the kernel.

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These third-party components comprise a vast body of work and may include both kernel modules and user applications and libraries. Linux vendors and communities combine and distribute the kernel, GNU components, and non-GNU components, with additional package management software in the form of Linux distributions. A Linux-based system is a modular Unix-like operating system.

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It derives much of its basic design from principles established in Unix during the s and s. Such a system uses a monolithic kernel , the Linux kernel , which handles process control, networking, and peripheral and file system access.

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Device drivers are either integrated directly with the kernel or added as modules loaded while the system is running. Separate projects that interface with the kernel provide much of the system's higher-level functionality. The GNU userland is an important part of most Linux-based systems, providing the most common implementation of the C library , a popular shell , and many of the common Unix tools which carry out many basic operating system tasks.

The user interface , also known as the shell , is either a command line interface CLI , a graphical user interface GUI , or through controls attached to the associated hardware, which is common for embedded systems. For desktop systems, the default mode is usually a graphical user interface, although the CLI is available through terminal emulator windows or on a separate virtual console. The CLI is particularly suited for automation of repetitive or delayed tasks, and provides very simple inter-process communication. Most popular user interfaces are based on the X Window System , often simply called "X".

It provides network transparency and permits a graphical application running on one system to be displayed on another where a user may interact with the application. A window manager provides a means to control the placement and appearance of individual application windows, and interacts with the X Window System. The primary difference between Linux and many other popular contemporary operating systems is that the Linux kernel and other components are free and open source software. Linux is not the only such operating system, although it is by far the most widely used. Linux based distributions are intended by developers for interoperability with other operating systems and established computing standards. Free software projects, although developed in a collaborative fashion, are often produced independently of each other.

The fact that the software licenses explicitly permit redistribution, however, provides a basis for larger scale projects that collect the software produced by stand-alone projects and make it available all at once in the form of a Linux distribution. Many Linux distributions , or "distros", manage a remote collection of system software and application software packages available for download and installation through a network connection. This allows users to adapt the operating system to their specific needs.

Distributions are maintained by individuals, loose-knit teams, volunteer organizations, and commercial entities. A distribution is responsible for the default configuration of the installed Linux kernel, general system security, and more generally integration of the different software packages into a coherent whole.

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Distributions typically use a package manager such as dpkg , Synaptic , YAST , yum , or Portage to install, remove and update all of a system's software from one central location. A distribution is largely driven by its developer and user communities. Some vendors develop and fund their distributions on a volunteer basis, Debian being a well-known example. In many cities and regions, local associations known as Linux User Groups LUGs seek to promote their preferred distribution and by extension free software.

They hold meetings and provide free demonstrations, training, technical support, and operating system installation to new users. Many Internet communities also provide support to Linux users and developers.

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  6. Online forums are another means for support, with notable examples being LinuxQuestions. Linux distributions host mailing lists ; commonly there will be a specific topic such as usage or development for a given list. There are several technology websites with a Linux focus. Print magazines on Linux often include cover disks including software or even complete Linux distributions. Although Linux distributions are generally available without charge, several large corporations sell, support, and contribute to the development of the components of the system and of free software.

    A number of corporations, notably Red Hat and Novell , have built a significant business around Linux distributions. The free software licenses , on which the various software packages of a distribution built on the Linux kernel are based, explicitly accommodate and encourage commercialization; the relationship between a Linux distribution as a whole and individual vendors may be seen as symbiotic.

    One common business model of commercial suppliers is charging for support, especially for business users. A number of companies also offer a specialized business version of their distribution, which adds proprietary support packages and tools to administer higher numbers of installations or to simplify administrative tasks. Another business model is to give away the software in order to sell hardware.