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It was urgently necessary to reinforce the outpost of Detroit , which had a population of and a garrison of soldiers. Madison and Eustis concurred with this plan and offered command of the army to Hull, an aging veteran of the American Revolutionary War. He was reluctant to take the appointment, but no other officer was available with his prestige and experience.

He accepted after repeated pleas from Madison, and was commissioned as a brigadier general in the United States Army.

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Hull took command of them at Dayton, Ohio on 25 May but found that they were badly equipped and ill-disciplined, and no arrangements had been made to supply them on the march. He made hasty efforts to remedy the deficiencies in equipment. The army marched north from Urbana, Ohio on 10 June, joined by the 4th U. Infantry under Lieutenant Colonel James Miller. Hull ignored an earlier route established by Anthony Wayne and created a new route to Detroit across the Great Black Swamp area of northwest Ohio. His draft horses were worn out by the arduous march, so he put his entrenching tools, medical supplies, officers' baggage, despatches, some sick men and the army's band aboard the packet vessel Cayahoga at the foot of the Maumee River , to be transported across Lake Erie.

Eustis had sent his first letter of 18 June by special messenger. Congress had passed the declaration of war later that day, but Eustis sent a letter with this vital information only by ordinary mail. The British ambassador in Washington had sent the news urgently to Britain and Canada, and the military commanders in Canada had in turn hastened to inform all their outposts of the state of war.

Hull reached Detroit on 5 July, where he was reinforced by detachments of Michigan militia, including the men of the Michigan Legionary Corps, which Hull had established in The American army was short of supplies, especially food, as Detroit provided only soap and whiskey. The fort there was defended by British regulars, mainly from the 41st Regiment of Foot , Indians, and some militia.

Siege of Detroit

George, who was later superseded by Colonel Henry Procter of the 41st. Hull was not enthusiastic and wrote to Eustis that "the British command the water and the savages. He issued several proclamations which were intended to induce Canadians to join or support his army while some of his mounted troops raided up the Thames River as far as Moraviantown.

These moves discouraged many of the militia from opposing his invasion, but few of the inhabitants of the region actively aided him, even those who had recently moved from the United States. There were several indecisive skirmishes with British outposts along the Canard River. Hull decided that he could not attack the British fort without artillery, which could not be brought forward because the carriages had decayed and needed repair, and fell back.

Hull had been quarreling with his militia colonels since taking over the army, and he felt that he did not have their support in the field or in their councils of war. On 17 July, a mixed force of British regulars, Canadian fur traders, and Indians captured the important trading post of Mackinac Island on Lake Huron from its small American garrison who were not aware that war had been declared.

Many of the Indians who had taken part in the attack either remained at Mackinac or returned to their homes, but or more Sioux , Menominee , and Winnebago warriors began moving south from Mackinac to join those already at Amherstburg, while the news induced the previously neutral Wyandots living near Detroit to become increasingly hostile to the Americans.

Hull learned of the capture of Mackinac on 3 August, when the paroled American garrison reached Detroit by schooner. A raiding party under Tecumseh ambushed and routed an American detachment under Major van Horne on 4 August at the Battle of Brownstown , capturing more of Hull's despatches.

Hull sent a larger party under James Miller to clear his lines of communication and escort a supply convoy of head of cattle and 70 pack horses loaded with flour, which was waiting at Frenchtown, Michigan under Major Brush. Miller was ill and his losses in the engagement were heavier than those of the enemy, and he lost confidence and remained encamped near the battlefield until Hull ordered him to return to Detroit. Meanwhile, British Major General Isaac Brock was in York , the provincial capital, dealing with the unwilling Legislative Assembly and mobilizing the province's militia.

He had only a single regiment of regulars and some small detachments of veterans and artillery to support the militia, but he was aware that there was no immediate threat from the disorganized and badly supplied American forces on the Niagara River , or from the lethargic American commander in chief Major General Henry Dearborn at Albany, New York ; Hull's army alone was occupying or threatening Canadian territory. Late in July, Brock learned of the capture of Mackinac.

He was also informed by Lieutenant General George Prevost , the Governor General of Canada , that an additional regiment was being dispatched to Upper Canada, although as piecemeal detachments. Brock dispatched 50 of his small force of regulars and volunteers from the militia westward from York to reinforce Amherstburg. On 5 August, he prorogued the Assembly and set out himself after them.

He and his force sailed from Port Dover, Ontario in batteaux and open boats; they reached Amherstburg on 13 August, [15] at the same time as additional Indian warriors who joined Tecumseh "Western Indians" from Mackinac and Wyandots. At Amherstburg, Brock learned from Hull's captured despatches that the morale was low in Hull's army, that they feared the numbers of Indians which might be facing them, and that they were short of supplies.

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Brock also established a rapport with Tecumseh, ensuring that the Indians would cooperate with his moves. Brock and Tecumseh met shortly after Brock arrived at Amherstburg, and legend has it that Tecumseh turned to his warriors and said, "Here is a man! Brock determined on an immediate attack on Detroit, against the advice of most of his subordinates. The British had already played on Hull's fear of the Indians by arranging for a misleading letter to fall into American hands.

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The letter asked that no more Indians be allowed to proceed from Fort Mackinac, as there were already 5, at Amherstburg and supplies were running short. Brock sent Hull a demand for surrender, stating:. The force at my disposal authorizes me to require of you the immediate surrender of Fort Detroit. It is far from my intention to join in a war of extermination, but you must be aware, that the numerous body of Indians who have attached themselves to my troops, will be beyond control the moment the contest commences. According to Brock's later report, the attacking force included warriors and soldiers, as well as two warships.

Major Thomas Evans at Fort George suggested that Brock give his militia the cast-off uniforms of the 41st Regiment to make Hull believe that most of the British force were regulars. They marched to take up positions in plain sight of the Americans then quickly ducked behind entrenchments, and marched back out of sight to repeat the maneuver. The same trick was carried out during meals, where the line would dump their beans into a hidden pot, then return out of view to rejoin the end of the line. In the early hours of the morning of 16 August, Tecumseh's warriors crossed the river about 5 miles 8. The first was composed of 50 men of the Royal Newfoundland Fencibles and some Lincoln and Kent militia; the second consisted of 50 men of the 41st Regiment with York, Lincoln, Oxford, and Norfolk militia; the third was formed from the main body of the 41st men and 50 men of the Royal Artillery with five field guns three 6-pounders and two 3-pounders.

Brock originally intended to occupy a fortified position astride Hull's supply line and wait for starvation and bombardment to force the Americans to surrender or come out to fight, but he then learned that Hull had sent a detachment of men the previous day under Colonels Cass and McArthur to escort Brush's convoy to Detroit via a backwoods trail some distance from the lake and river, [21] and this detachment was only a few miles from the British rear.

Hull had sent messengers recalling this force the night before, but Cass and MacArthur had already encamped for the night and declined to move. To avoid being caught between two fires, Brock advanced immediately against the rear of Fort Detroit, the side farthest from the river where the defences were weakest. Militia cavalry leader William Hamilton Merritt noted that "Tecumseh extended his men, and marched them three times through an opening in the woods at the rear of the fort in full view of the garrison, which induced them to believe there were at least two or three thousand Indians.

As the British prepared to attack, a shell exploded in the officers' mess inside the fort, causing casualties. Hull despaired of holding out against a force which seemingly consisted of thousands of British regulars, because he was lacking adequate gunpowder and ammunition to withstand a long siege. Hull hoisted a white flag of surrender against the advice of his subordinates. He sent messengers to Brock asking for three days to agree on terms of surrender. Brock replied that he would allow him three hours. Hull surrendered his entire force, including Cass's and McArthur's detachment and Major Brush's supply convoy.

There were rumours that he had been drinking heavily prior to the surrender. He is reported to have said that the Indians were "numerous beyond example" and "more greedy of violence… than the Vikings or Huns. The British bombardment killed seven Americans before the surrender, including Lieutenant Porter Hanks , the former commander of Fort Mackinac who was awaiting a court martial. The answering fire from the guns of Fort Detroit wounded two British gunners. After Hull surrendered, the 1, Ohio militiamen from his army were paroled and escorted south until they were out of danger of attack from the Indians.

Most of the Michigan militia had already deserted. The American regulars were sent as prisoners to Quebec City. The British government released a White Paper that accuses the Haganah , Irgun and Stern gangs of "a planned movement of sabotage and violence" under the direction of the Jewish Agency and asserts that the June 29 arrest of Zionist leaders was the cause of the bombing. The British Palestine Commander, Lt. General Sir Evelyn Barker, banned fraternization by British troops with Palestine Jews whom he stated "cannot be absolved of responsibility for terroristic acts.

Tel Aviv is placed under a 22hour-a-day curfew as 20, British troops began a house-to-house sweep for members of the Jewish underground. The city is sealed off and troops are ordered to shoot to kill any curfew violators. Also, two ships have arrived at Haifa with a total of 3, illegal Jewish immigrants.

British military authorities ended the curfew in Tel Aviv after detaining persons for further questioning.. The British Government announced that it will allow no more unscheduled immigration into Palestine and that those seeking entry into that country will be sent to Cyprus and other areas under detention. Declaring that such immigration threatens a civil war with the Arab population, it charges a "minority of Zionist extremists" with attempting to force an unacceptable solution of the Palestine problem..

Two ships carrying a total of 1, Jewish refugees arrived at Haifa. The port area was isolated on August 11 by British military and naval units. The first deportation ship sailed for Cyprus with Jews on board. Three Jews were killed and seven wounded when British troops were compelled to fire on a crowd of about 1, persons trying to break into the port area of Haifa. Two Royal Navy ships with 1, illegal Jewish immigrants on board sailed for Cyprus.

Another ship with illegal immigrants was captured and confined in the Haifa harbor. British military units searched the coastal villages of Casera and Sadoth Yarn for three Jews who bombed the transport "Empire Rival" last week. Eighty-five persons, including the entire male population of one of the villages were sent to the Rafa detention center..

British military units discovered arms and munitions dumps in the Jewish farming villages of Dorot and Ruhama. British troops imposed a curfew and arrested Jews and wounded two in a search for saboteurs in Tel Aviv and neighboring Ramat Gan.

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Irgun took the action against the railways on September 8, as a protest.. Jewish underground members robbed three banks in Jaffa and Tel Aviv, killing three Arabs. Thirty-six Jews were arrested.. Jewish underground attacks a police station on the coast near Tel Aviv but were driven off by gunfire. British military units and police seized 50 Jews in a Tel Aviv cafe after a Jewish home was blown up. This home belonged to a Jewish woman who had refused to pay extortion money to the Irgun.

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Two British soldiers were killed when their truck detonated a kind mine outside Jerusalem. A leading Arab figure was wounded in a similar mine explosion in Jerusalem and more mad mines were found near Government House.. Nazi Party leader Herman Goering committs suicide by ingesting a cyanide capsule the night before he is due to be hung following the Nuremberg Trials. Executions of those convicted of war crimes and crimes against humanity at the Nuremberg Trials.